Showing posts with label Peshawar. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Peshawar. Show all posts

Statement On The Situation In The Frontier Province New Delhi : May 7, 1947

Quaid-e-Azam with  members of NWFP Assembly in Peshawar
Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, President of the All India Muslim League, issued a thousand words Statement on the Frontier.

"I have had the opportunity of fully discussing with Frontier League leaders the situation in the North-West Frontier Province and the developments that have taken place recently. The League movement in the Frontier was started because the people and especially the Muslim Leaguers and the League organization in the Province were sought to be crushed by Khan Sahib Ministry, by fair means or foul, ever since the ministry was formed. The victimization, persecution, suppression and oppression on the part of the Government, knew no limits.

“Every vestige of civil liberties had ceased to exist. Ordinances, Frontier Crimes Regulations, Section 144 and other repressive provisions of the law were being freely and ruthlessly used to deprive the people of their rights of political expression and criticism of the ministry. These were the conditions prevailing in the Province when the top-ranking leaders of the Muslim League were arrested for asserting their right of civil liberties, and the resentment caused among the people assumed the character of mass civil disobedience. It is absolutely false and a complete misrepresentation of the facts that the All-India Muslim League ever decided to actually resort to direct action. The Bombay Resolution of 29 July 1946, merely indicated a change of policy, by it we declared that we would no longer be restricted to constitutional methods which had been scrupulously followed by the All-India Muslim League up to that time."

"The Congress creed, on the other hand not only permitted them to resort to unlawful means, but it was of the very essence of the organization that they were free to resort to mass civil disobedience at any time they considered proper for the achievement of their objectives through coercive methods.

Solidarity of Pakistan

The Historic Group Photograph of Quaid E Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah at his Last Visit to Islamia College, Peshawar, Pakistan (12.04.1948 CE) (Courtesy of Prof. Dr. Taskeen Ahmad Khan, Associate Dean, Associate Faculty of Urology, Khyber Medical University, Peshawar (nb: From the Personal Library File of Maj. Gen (Retd.) Anwar Sher Khan, Peshawar).


“Remember we are building up a State which is going to play its full part in the destinies of the whole Islamic World. We, therefore, need a wider look, an outlook which transcends the boundaries of provinces, limited nationalism, and racialism. We must develop a sense of patriotism which should galvanize us all into one united and strong nation. That is the only way in which we can achieve our goal, the goal of our struggle, the goal for which millions of Mussalmans have lost their lives.”


Islamia College, Peshawar,
12 April, 1948

Quaid-e-Azam's Visit to Peshawar in 1936


Quaid-e-Azam at Islamia College Peshawar 


The Historic Group Photograph of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah at his Last Visit to Islamia College, Peshawar, N-WFP, Pakistan (12.04.1948 CE) (Courtesy of Prof. Dr. Taskeen Ahmad Khan, Associate Dean, Associate Faculty of Urology, Khyber Medical University, Peshawar (nb: From the Personal Library File of Maj. Gen (Retd.) Anwar Sher Khan, Peshawar).

by Mohammad Anwar Khan

The Government of India Act 1935, though considered “fundamentally bad”1 by the Muslim leaders, was a significant step, as the future constitutional framework of India was based upon it. Elections to the provincial assemblies were announced for the fall 1936-37 and the Muslim League in the 24th session, in Bombay, on the 12th of April 1936, resolved to contest the provincial assemblies elections and authorised the Quaid to organise elections boards at the central and the provincial level and also devise “ways and means” for contesting the forthcoming election.2 The Quaid, accordingly, invited a large number of influential Muslim leaders all over India for a meeting by the end of April 1936 at Delhi and also went to Lahore for consultation with the leaders of Punjab. He addressed letters for this meeting to a large number of the Muslim leaders from the NWFP, notable amongst them were Pir Bakhsh,3 Malik Khuda Bakhsh.4 No one from the Frontier attended this meeting. Pir Bakhsh did not acknowledge it. The Quaid met later Malik Khuda Bakhsh and Rahim Bakhsh Ghaznavi at Lahore at the residence of Mian Abdul Aziz.5

The Frontier was given representation in the Central Parliamentary Board. Pir Bakhsh, Malik Khuda Bakhsh, Allah Bakhsh Yousufi and Abdul Rahim (Rahim Bakhsh) Ghaznavi were appointed as members of the board from the Frontier. The Quaid was very keen at this time to learn more about the Frontier. It was a Muslim majority area. He had also fought for its provincial status. His knowledge of the Frontier was not upto date: this is discernible from his correspondence with Pir Bakhsh6 on September 13, 1936 and that with Abdul Ghafoor, Allah Bakhsh Yousufi and few others.7 He wanted to know more as he intended visiting Peshawar.8 The Quaid for the most part depended upon Pir Bakhsh with whom he had developed acquaintance since 1931.9 None would tell him the details. Malik Khuda Bakhsh rather has asked him in April to visit Peshawar10 and to see things for himself. In October he decided to tour Punjab and Frontier, and he accordingly wrote to the Frontier leaders including Sahibzada Abdul-Qayum11 whom he knew as member of the Imperial Legislative Council a dna colleague at the Round Table Conference, supporting the cause of Indian Musalmans in general and that of Frontier in particular. Sahibzada being attached to government agency, asked one of his Lieutenant Agha Lal Badshah, who had worked under him in the British Political service in Waziristan to extend a formal invitation to the Quaid on behalf of the Muslims of the NWFP.12 He also asked Pir Bakhsh to assist Lal Badshah in which a number of Muslim Peshawari leaders participated, a resolution was drafted requesting the Quaid to visit Peshawar. It was written by Pir Bakhsh and Sufi Abdul Aziz Khushbash “an energetic national worker of Peshawar city” as Pir Bakhsh introduced him in his letter to the Quaid, was deputed to deliver this invitation to the Quaid at Lahore.13

Abdul Aziz Khushbash,14 in his interview with the author stated that his travel expenses were borne by Syed Lal Badshah. The Quaid was staying at the Faletti’s Hotel. A room was provided for him too. He stayed for two days at Lahore and then accompanied him to Peshawar by evening Bombay mail. He sent telegram on the 17th of October 1936 prior to their departure to Syed Lal Badshsh intimating the time and day of their arrival in Peshawar. Both reached Peshawar next morning. Nawab Mamdot, saw the Quaid off at the Lahore railway station.15

The Quaid arrived in Peshawar on Sunday, the 18th of October 1936.16 Bombay express reached the City station at about 8 AM. About 400 persons welcomed him at the station.17 Secret police report tells us presence of prominent persons amongst them like Sahibzada Qayum, Ghulam Samdani, Pir Bakhsh, Lal Badshsh, Chan Badshah, Mohammad Usman Naswari, Rahim Bakhsh, Ataullah and Abdul Hye.18 It also records presence of about thirty Khaksars and 78 boyscouts. The Quaid was greeted and garlanded.19 He shook hands with all those in the front.20 He was dressed meticulously western, wearing top hat, long coat, beneath it a well cut suit with English shoes, took aback many credulous Peshawaris, dubbed by one as an Englishman.21 The Quaid was taken in procession, in a convertible grey car provided by Sahibzada Qayum. The station receptionists were later joined by the public, and the procession including volunteers, a Rover’s batch of Islamia College,22 students from Edwardes’ College, left for the city through a pre-planned route. The Quaid was driven slowly, seated by him were Pir Bakhsh, Lal Badshah in the back seat and perhaps Hakim Jalil in the front seat as gleaned through a photograph taken on the occasion. The procession entered the city through Hashtnagri, Karimpura bazaar, to the Ghanta Ghar, then through Chowk Yadgar, the party proceeded via Phurgaran towards Yakatut and terminated at the residence of Sahibzada Qayum, which had been furnished for the Quaid’s stay.23 Mr. Ayub Khattak then a second year student of Islamia College and incharge Rover’s group recollects that flowers were showered at the procession from a balakhana near Ghanta Ghar, and a handful of sweet (shakarpara) was pelted over the motorcar from the Sufi sweet house (still situated in Ghantaghar at the entrance to Karimpura) one ball hitting the Quaid at the right eyebrow, which gave reddish look for a quite a while. It all took about two hours to reach Mundiberi. Here the Quaid thanked all, especially the student community and promised to meet them later during his stay at Peshawar.24

The Quaid stayed for a week from 18th of October to the 24th at the Mundiberi residence of Sahibzada Qayum.

The first day in Peshawar was spent quietly. There is no day record maintained by one, of this event. The news media was not much alive to it. The Khyber Mail, then a weekly, has only given a three line account of the arrival and a column on the departure. The Frontier Advocate and the Sarhadi Samachar both Hindu papers, on which I could not lay hand, are reported not to pay much heed to the visit. Al-Jamiat’s file for 1936 is not maintained and also those of Islahe Sarhad are not traceable. The story therefore is based on a few secret police reports and recollections of men connected with this event. Some exaggerated versions of this visit have lately appeared.

The Quaid was visiting at this time in his individual capacity. The public was least conscious of his mission less to talk of the Muslim League. An educated frontierman had heard about him as supporter of the Frontier cause in the Legislative Council and at the Round Table Conference. His Fourteen Points, which inter alia had urged for reforms in the Frontier, has aroused liking for him. His struggle for the Muslim cause, was penetrating the Frontier though slow, but steadily. The students of Islamia College invited him in May 1936 to preside over the Prophet’s day function.25 This he could not attend, but he sent message26 for the occasion. The Khyber Mail in its weekly political and educational columns was portraying both literary and political efforts of the Indian Muslim leaders and the Quaid and Iqbal found place in them. The Frontier politics had been completely overshadowed by the Khudai Khidmatgar (redshirt) movement, which had affiliated itself with the Indian National Congress. It was a movement that had deep roots in the rural areas and its leader, Abdul Ghaffar Khan, had emerged as a socio-political saviour and his arrest had caused political restlessness in the area.27 Coinciding it the approaching provincial elections had produced hectic political life. Redshirt election campaign offices were opened all over the province. District parliamentary boards, were set up during the middle of 1936. Meetings were organised and the public made conscious of their rights. Dr. Khan, Abdul Qayum Khan, Qasim Shah Mian, Ghulam Rabbani, Ghulam Mohammad Lundkhwar, Mehar Chand Khanna, Dr. C.C. Ghosh, Ashiq Bad Shah, Mian Samin Jan, Kamdar Khan and others were daily reported addressing meetings in the length and breadth of the province. The government had to resort to arrests in certain cases, which further made their cause popular. August 21, was observed as Ghaffar Khan Day all over the province.28 The Socialist Party of Peshawar joined hands with the Redshirt.29 There were, in fact, only two parties in the Frontier, the government and the Redshirt, as claimed by the Congress leadership. The others were all disarrayed. Non-Congressite Muslims would hold inconclusive periodic meetings, and one like it was held on August 25-26th at Abbottabad to prepare the election manifesto and devise means for the forthcoming elections,30 but personal rivalry marred unanimous stand. The Muslim Azad Party, was split up into Nishtar and Pir Bakhsh group. Khaksars and Ahrars were mostly ineffective.

The political situations, therefore in October 1936, in the Frontier province was quite blurred. The Quaid was to analyse it properly. He, therefore, in the first instance met the Redshirt leaders, at about 6 p.m. on the first day of his arrival. The secret police reports Ghulam Mohammad Lundkhwar, Abdul Qayyum Khan, Qaim Shah Mian and Dr. C.C. Ghosh, calling on the Quaid on that evening. They discussed the affairs in general with him.31 The visitors formed part of the city parliamentary board. The Quaid persuaded them to wind up this board. To this they did not agree.32 He asked Qayyum Khan according to the secret police, report, to join the Muslim League. Qayyum later reported to Dr. Khan that he refused it.33

Next day, that is the 19th of October, the Quaid addressed the students of Edwardes College during the forenoon hours. There is no authentic information on this visit. The police secret reports mention of a gathering of about 200 students in College hall, in which, the Quaid explained the object of his visit to Peshawar. He appreciated political awakening in the Frontier and hoped that it would play an important role in the future constitution of the country.34

The same evening at about 4 p.m. the Quaid addressed the public of Peshawar at Shahibagh under the auspices of Muslim Azad Party. The news for this meeting had been customarily heralded in the city. Agha Lal Badshah presided over the meeting and Pir Bakhsh acted as the stage secretary. Sources vary on the number of audience.35 Police report indicates presence of about one thousand persons. Khushbash puts this number to 4000. Malik Shad estimates between two thousand to two and a half thousand (Professor) Jalalud Din Khilji, (ex-Principal Islamia College) then a Youngman of about 25, who happens to have reached the meeting spot unscheduled, found a small gathering not exceeding 300 persons. All accounts confirms that a good number of Hindus, mostly lawyers and the Sikhs were also present. The Quaid was as usual wearing western dress, a sola hat, was noticed smoking cigar on the dais. Many took him for an Englishman36 and quite a few left when he addressed them in English as it was not followed by all.37 The special branch timed the speech about 30 minutes, explaining to all that he had not come to lend support to any particular political group in the province, but to enlighten them on the aims and objects of the All India Muslim League. He also talked for a while on the 1935 Act and exhorted the Muslims to forge unity in their ranks and files, evolving one united party “Should they form such a party Hindus will follow suit”. He emphasized that the Muslim League aimed at producing liberal and progressive minded nationalist who could lead their nation to freedom.38 He advised them to send their best men to the assembly.39 He also asked the Hindus and Sikhs to sent their best too so that Hindu-Muslim unity is cemented and way paved for swaraj.40

Pir Bakhsh at the end of the speech gave a resume of it in Urdu. The meeting dispersed by about 5:30 p.m.41

On Tuesday, the 20th of October, the Quaid visited Islamia College on the invitation of the Khyber Union, the student organisation. The chief informants for this function are Ayub Khattak, Abdul Manan,42 both second year students of Islamia College. Malik Shad also participated in this function and has some dim recollections of it. Ayub Khattak informs that the college administration was not happy with this invitation and the organizers had to assure the Principal that the guest would not make any political speech. Khatak, Manan, and few others who were interviewed confirmed that Sahibzada Qayum was not present in the function.43

The Quaid was welcomed on entering the hall (Roosekepple) by students who had occupied it to full. The Principal (R.H. Holdsworth) welcomed the guest, as president of the Union. Prof. Mohammad Shafi, in his address paid tributes to the Quaid for his efforts in bringing unity in Muslim thought. He dwelt at length on the concept of Muslim unity and quoted extensively from Iqbal. The Quaid spoke for about half an hour. He advised the students “to advance themselves politically and educationally”.44 He was sure that this seat of learning (Islamia College) will one day equal the glamour of Al-Azhar and Cordova.45 Mohammad Yusuf Khalil, the vice-president of the Union, thereafter dilated on the objectives of the student body touching also upon the Pathan code of honour and ethic and requested the guest to become their honorary life member. The membership register thereafter was presented to him. The Quaid while singing it remarked that it is so endearing to his heart that he was signing the document without reading it.

This function, in all probability, took place in the afternoon.46 The meeting soon after adjourned with no tea party.47

There are positive evidence that the Quaid’s visit to Landi-Kotal was on the 21st or the 22nd. A group photograph at Landikotal in currency for a while in Peshawar was lately displayed at the centenary exhibition at the University of Peshawar. Malik Saida Khan Shinwari played host for him at his village in Landi Kotal. No positive date for this visit could be ascertained. It certainly was not Friday, the 23rd of October, as Malik Shad affirms that the Quaid performed Juma prayer in Masjib Mohbat Khan, wearing fez, under the imamat of Hafiz Noor Mohammad.48 The government record at the political Agent Khyber office is not in order to establish the correct day of visit.

The Quaid’s stay from 21st to 24th is also shrouded in myth. No definite story can be built as there is no authentic record with the exception of a secret police report that the Quaid met important Muslim leaders on the 23rd at the residence of Sahibzada Qayum, in the cantonment area in which Kuli Khan, Abdul Rahim Kundi, Pir Bakhsh, Abdul Rahman, Lal Badshah and Hakim Abdul Jalil participated.49 There is no detailed account of the meeting. The report concludes that a branch of the provincial Muslim League was formed on the suggestions of the Quaid with Khuda Bakhsh as president, Pir Bakhsh secretary and Hakim Jalil, Rahim Bakhsh, Abdul Latif, Syed Ali and Lal Badshah as members of the executive committee.50 Another report emanating from the same source reveals that Abdul Wadood Sarhadi alongwith a few other met the Quaid on the 24th and apprised him of the situation in the province. Wadood did not show any inclination to join Muslim League, on the contrary he forecasted that the Khudai Khidmatgar will win the forthcoming election and the Muslim League stood no chance to compete with them.51

This was the plea also taken by all other political leaders. There are indications that the Frontier leaders were not keen then to bet on the Muslim League for the forthcoming provincial elections and therefore they all preferred to contest the election in their individual capacity rather than as League candidates. The Khyber Mail carried the following column by its staff reporter on the conclusion of the Quaid’s tour of the Frontier.

“Mr. Jinnah saw works of all shades of opinion and had an exchange of views with them. A number of representative Muslims from all over the Province met him on Friday afternoon.

After a long discussion it was decided to form a party in order to take steps for the early formation of a Provincial Muslim League in the NWFP. Members of this Consultative Board include about 20 members of the Independent Party of the Province with Mr. Pir Bakhsh Khan MLC as convener.

It is proposed to hold a representative meeting of the Frontier Muslims of all shades of political thought in the first week of November at Peshawar in order to finally decide the question of the formation of the Muslim League. This decision has excited considerable interest in political circle of the Frontier. The majority of the workers in Peshawar seem to agree with Mr. Jinnah as regards programme of the League which they are studying keenly at present.

Mr. Jinnah before his departure told the Press that he was entirely satisfied with the result of his Frontier visit and cherished strong hopes of a bright future.

Members of the Independent Party, who owing to their election activities could not attend the above meeting have telegraphically informed of the above result. Mr. Jinnah has promised to visit the Frontier again whenever it is necessary for him to do so in the interest of the new Board. It is also stated that Maulana Ahmad Saeed, Secretary of Jamiatul Ullama-e-Hind, Delhi, will be deputed by Mr. Jinnah to do propaganda in the NWFP on behalf of the Muslim League.”52

The Quaid left Peshawar on the 24th evening. He was seen off at the railway station by about fifty persons important amongst them Pir Bakhsh, Lal Badshsh and Abdul Jalil.53

Mohammad Anwar Khan is Director, Institute of Central Asian Studies, University of Peshawar.


  1. Jamilul Din Ahmad, Historic Documents on the Muslim Freedom Movement p. 193. Hereafter cited as Historic Document.
  2. Ibid.
  3. The letter to Pir Bakhsh presently form part of Aziz Javed collection.
  4. Khuda Bakhsh to Jinnah DIK 30-4-1936 QA Paper cell Islamabad.
  5. This information is based on the statement of Mr. Ghaznavi.
  6. Aziz Javed collection.
  7. Abstract of NWFP, Police Intelligence Secret File No. 94 P. 319.
  8. Ibid.
  9. “The role of NWFP in Pakistan Movement” by Pir Bakhsh in Dawn Supplement May 12, 1975.
  10. Letter.
  11. The information from Malik Mohammad Shah and Rahim Bakhsh Ghaznavi.
  12. Ibid.
  13. Pir Bakhsh to Jinnah, Peshwar 14-10-1936. QA Paper Cell.
  14. The title of Khushbash (happy going) was conferred on him by Pandit Amir Chand Bambwal, the editor of Frontier Advocate in prison during 1922 on account of his jolly disposition.
  15. Mr. Rahim Bakhsh Ghaznavi, a follower of Nishtar, informs that Sardar Abdul Rab Nishtar, then an opponent of Pir Bakhsh was highly alarmed on hearing the Quaid’s visit on the invitation of the rival group. He sent the two brothers, Allah Bakhsh Yousufi and Rahim Bakhsh Ghaznavi to Lahore to apprise the Quaid of their standpoint and to ask him not to do anything which in any degree harm their group position. Later Nishtar went in advance to see him at the Noshera railway station and tried to convince him of his viewpoint. It seems to have made little effect on him because later developments show that the Quaid could not under any circumstance encourage schism amongst the Musalmans.
  16. Khyber Mail, Oct. 18, 1936 p. I Col. 2.
  17. Abstract of Intelligence p. 369.
  18. Ibid.
  19. Khyber Mail.
  20. Malik Shad.
  21. Malik Shad says that Mian Mohammad nicknamed Nim Shah said so.
  22. Mr. Ayub Khattak accompanied the group to the Station and then joined the procession upto the residence.
  23. Ayub Khattak’s interview. This statement is also corroborated by Malik Shad.
  24. Malik Shad deposes that Pahlavan Faqir Mohammad and Fazal Mahmood were reciting Iqbal’s poem in the front line.
  25. Khyber Mail May 10, 1936 P. I Col. 2.
  26. Ibid., June 14, 1936 P. 2 Col. 4.
  27. Khyber Mail. There are many entries to this effect In 1936 file.
  28. Khyber Mail August 16, 1936, p. I Col. I.
  29. Ibid., October 4, 1936 p. I Col. 2.
  30. Ibid., August 16, 1936 p. I Col. I.
  31. Abstract of Intelligence op. cit., p. 369.
  32. Ibid.
  33. Abstract of Intelligence o.p. cit., P. 377.
  34. Ibid., P. 381.
  35. Ibid., P. 381.
  36. Professor J.D. Khiliji recollections.
  37. Ibid.
  38. Abstract of Intelligence op. cit., p. 382.
  39. Khyber Mail 25th Oct. 1936 p. I Cols. 2-3.
  40. Abstract of Intelligence op. cit.
  41. Malik Shad.
  42. Mr. Abdul Manan Khan is currently Agriculture Secretary to the Government of NWFP.
  43. Dr. Sakhaullah ex-Professor of Arabic also lends support to it.
  44. Ayub Khattak’s recollections.
  45. Abdul Manan’s recollections.
  46. Ayub Khattak asserts that it was in the afternoon. Abdul Manan would not remember it. Dr. Sakhaullah thinks it was in the forenoon. The College’s own account is silent about it.
  47. Ibid.
  48. He is not quite sure, but thinks it was Hafiz Noor.
  49. Abstract of Intelligence op. cit., P. 382.
  50. Abstract of Intelligence op. cit., P. 382.
  51. Ibid.
  52. Khyber Mail, October 25, 1936 op. cit.
  53. Abstract of Intelligence P. 382.

Source: World Scholars on Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
Edited by: Ahmad Hasan Dani, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan 1979.

Quaid-e-Azam lands in Peshawar, June 1948

Quaid-e-Azam lands in Peshawar, June 1948

followed by Ms Jinnah, Sir Ambrose Dundas Governor and Abdul Qayyum Khan Chief Minister of NWFP and Major General Nazir Ahmed

Constitutional position of Baluchistan (13th Jun 1948)

Reply to the Address presented by a Deputation of the members of the Quetta Parsi Community on 13th June, 1948.
 Click to enlarge.
Receiving a Karakuli Jinnah Cap from Balochistan National Guards


I am very pleased indeed to meet you all and have an opportunity of hearing your well-considered views about Baluchistan, and I have no doubt in your sincerity and loyalty to Pakistan. Your community is really very well organised and I am happy–and I always say so–that it is better equipped than any other community that I know of in the sub-continent. You, therefore, although small in number, can make very great contribution to the welfare and progress of Pakistan and particularly Baluchistan.

Now coming nearer to Baluchistan, I know that people have not yet fully realised what present constitution is–that is true of even of well-informed and well-educated people. The establishment of Pakistan was catastrophic change and thus came so suddenly that people have not yet fully realised what it is. I dwelt on this point in my Sibi speech and may I, therefore, request you to read that speech if you can get a copy of it. I cannot go into all the details but I think as citizens you ought to know what is the real position. Under the present constitution it is the Governor-General who is vested with all authority–executive, administrative and legislative–in Baluchistan. I am, therefore, directly responsible for all executive, administrative and legislative measures that may be necessary to be adopted in Baluchistan. Rightly or wrongly the burden is placed on my shoulders. Now, you must have realised that Baluchistan has been the most neglected part of this sub-continent all these years. In some respects it is criminal negligence on the part of those who were responsible for the welfare of Baluchistan. You have got a deep-rooted ancient century–old system which is in vogue here and your administration has been stagnant for nearly a century. This is a problem that I am faced with as the Executive Head of Baluchistan. Now you cannot change these things overnight together sincerely, honestly and selflessly and as servants of Baluchistan.

In the very nature of things it will take eighteen months to two years before the new constitution of Pakistan is ready but we cannot wait until that work is completed and, therefore, I have made a small beginning, as I have said but a very important one and if as they say small beginning, but a very important one, after consulting various interests in Baluchistan, namely, I have decided to set up Governor-General’s Advisory Council. I am at it and perhaps very shortly the constitution, rules and procedure of that body will be announced. That is of course, a small beginning as I have said but a very important one and if as they say small things lead to very great things and if you handle it and manage it properly I am sure it will result in great progress and development of Baluchistan. But as I have said, it will depend on how the people of Baluchistan will handle the Governor General’s Advisory Council. This Council will enable people to associate themselves, no doubt as an advisory body, with administration–its executive and legislative side. That is the first step that I have taken because I cannot wait until we have a final constitution of Pakistan ready.

As regards your points regarding shortage of water supply and communications they are already under examination and with the help of our people and with their co-operation and advice we may be able to make some headway in both these matters.

As regards potentialities of Baluchistan you are right. I have a great deal of information about it. That question is

under our examination and I think there is a great future for Baluchistan’s development of its mineral wealth, agricultural resources, water supply, communication etc.

Finally, Gentlemen, I am sure, though small in number you may be in Baluchistan and in Pakistan as a whole, you will not lag behind in making your full contribution as true selfless Pakistanis. Although you have not struck any note of your needs and requirements as a community but you know that it is the policy of my Government and myself that every member of every community irrespective of caste, colour, creed or race shall be fully protected with regard to his life, property and honour and that there should-be peace in Pakistan and law and order should be maintained at-any cost. I reiterate that you, like any other minorities, will be treated as equal citizens with all your rights and obligations so long as you are loyal to Pakistan. I am glad and it is very refreshing that you have not gone on with the same old rut and the hackneyed phrases which are echoed in various quarters about the grievances and requests of minorities, but I must tell you that these assurances have been given and they are going to be implemented. Minority communities must not by mere words but by actions show this that they are truly loyal and they must make majority community feel that they are true citizens of Pakistan. Then you will help me and you will facilitate my task in carrying out the policy which we have laid down. You know you must dispel suspicion and distrust. It is now up to minorities to show by actions and deeds that they are true Pakistanis and dispel suspicion and distrust that has been created by deplorable and disgraceful events that have taken place.

In the end, I thank you and I am very pleased to meet you all. Let us put our heads together and work together and make Pakistan what it really and truly deserves to be.

Pakistan Zindabad

Be a Force of Peace: Advice to athletes (13th Jun 1948)

Speech at the Opening Ceremony of the First Pakistan Olympic Games at Karachi on 22nd April, 1948.

Pir Illahi Baksh, Mr. Ahmed Jaffer, Members of the Organizing and other Committees, Ladies and Gentlemen:

It has given me great pleasure to come here today to perform the opening ceremony of the first Pakistan Olympic games. I agreed to become the patron-in-chief of the Pakistan Olympic Association in the realisation that the success of our people in all walks of life depends upon the cultivation of “Sound Minds” the natural concomitant to “Sound Bodies”. To the athletes and youth of the nation I bid welcome. My message to you is: build up physical strength not for aggression, not for militarism, but for becoming fighting fit, all your life and all the time in every walk of life of your nation wherever you be and always to be a force for peace, international amity and goodwill. After these games you shall go to the World Olympic at Wembley Stadium, London, representing us as messengers of our goodwill and my best wishes will go with you. Remember to win is nothing, it is the effort and the spirit behind the effort that count.

To the organizers of Olympic games I say well-done for successfully completing the preparations for this meet in so short a time. You say you want a Stadium and are planning to hold Pan-Islamic Olympics in l950, and I hope your wishes may materialize. It all depends on you. Your demand for a State Department of Physical Culture and Education is one which requires consideration of Pakistan Government. I hope that they will examine. this aspect of the matter in dealing with many educational problems that are facing us.

In the end, I thank you for your warm welcome and wish you every success.

Pakistan Zindabad

Pakistan and Afghanistan - Bound by age-old links (8th May 1948)

Reply to the Speech made by His Excellency the Ambassador of Afghanistan at the time of presenting Credentials on 8th May, 1948.

Your Royal Highness,

It gives me very great pleasure indeed to welcome you today as the first Ambassador from Afghanistan. The Government and people of Pakistan greatly appreciate the action of His Majesty the King of Afghanistan in sending to us an Ambassador from the Royal family of Afghanistan. We hope and trust that with a Representative of Your Royal Highness’ distinction and experience the age-old link which bind our two peoples will be further strengthened thus paving the way for a bright and happy future for both our countries.

Your Royal Highness has rightly referred to the natural bonds of friendship and affection, which bind the people of our two countries. It could hardly be otherwise as these bonds are based on ties of faith and culture and common ideals. With such powerful bonds already in our favour we cannot, I feel, fail to bring the people of our two countries closer towards each other closer than they were before the birth of Pakistan.

As a newborn Sate, Pakistan desired nothing so ardently as the goodwill of the world. Its people are determined to work with heart and soul in the task of consolidating their new liberty and while so engaged in this great task they will be deeply conscious of the help and co-operation extended to them by the other States of the world particularly at this moment. We are indeed glad that we have amongst us today a distinguished representative of our closest neighbour and, Pakistan, I am sure, very much appreciates the message of good wishes Your Highness has brought to us.

Your Royal Highness can rest assured that in striving to cement the bonds of friendship that already exist between our two peoples and my Government will give you all possible help and co-operation. Coming as you do as a representative of the great Muslim nation, you are most welcome to us and we hope and trust that you will be able to discharge your duties successfully in the light of your good wishes and sentiments for Pakistan.

I hope that your Royal Highness’s stay in Karachi will be very happy and comfortable.

Pakistan Zindabad

The commercial policy of Pakistan (27th Apr 1948)

Reply to the Address presented by the Karachi Chamber of Commerce on 27th April 1948.

It gives me great pleasure, Mr. Chairman, to be here this morning with you all at this you’re 88th Annual General Meeting. I presume it is an accident to hold this meeting in the premises of the Karachi Cotton Association, for one can hardly dissociate Karachi from commerce and the commerce of this place from cotton. You have, Mr. Chairman, covered a very wide field in your address, from the founding of the sovereign and independent State of Pakistan to the petty usurpations of power by minor official here and there over this far-flung Dominion, from the intricacies of cotton trade to the common place of delays. You will, however, hardly expect me to follow you in every detail in my reply. I cannot, however, let an opportunity, such as you have presented to me today, pass without calling attention to certain salient points arising out of your address.

Let me, Mr. Chairman first acknowledge the tribute which you have justly paid to my Government and my people for the manner in which they faced up to the tragic events which so closely followed the establishment of Pakistan. It was inevitable that many otherwise sensible people should greet Pakistan as an unwanted and intolerable child whose birth could not long survive their displeasure. You have rightly pointed out how mistaken were the people who, because the idea of Pakistan was new and unfamiliar to them, thought Pakistan would have but only an ephemeral existence. None can now doubt, in your words, Mr. Chairman that a new Power was born among the nations of the world on August 14, 1947. The difficulties and the tribulations through which Pakistan has passed have helped to strengthen and temper the new State into steel, which is now, well and truly set upon the course on the uncharted seas of the future. The people who have made the effort which secured their separate freedom in the face of derision, disbelief and the utmost political opposition will not fail to make the additional effort necessary to consolidate their liberties, and any delusion or elusion from which some people still suffer, let me make it clear, that the sooner they bring their notion–Pakistan surrendering to India or seeking Union with Central Government–the better it will be for peace and prosperity of both the Dominions and will help a great deal to establish goodwill and neighbourly good feelings.

I am glad to note that you are disaffiliating your Chambers from the Associated Chambers of Commerce of India as a necessary corollary of the partition, and intend to form an Association of your Pakistan Chambers of Commerce.

You, Mr. Chairman, have rightly given pride of place to cotton in dealing with trade and commerce. I am glad to know that you have recognised that Pakistan’s cotton policy could not have been more liberal or less restrictive than it was until the impact of India’s decision to decontrol cloth and refuse it to us except in return for cotton, forced measures of regulation on us. Even so, all contracts made before 23rd January 1948 by traders in Pakistan–national or foreign–were honoured. That the cotton trade should have shown such admirable capacity to adjust itself to changing conditions is a matter for gratification. I would like to express the appreciation of the Government of Pakistan for the manner in which traders have played their part in helping to move cotton to the port and from the port to the markets of the world.

You have also referred at some length to the import policy of the Government of Pakistan and internal controls exercised within the country and have pleaded that, as few handicaps should be placed on trading as possible. Regulation and restriction with their attendant administrative evils will be imposed only where conditions compel, and any expressions of opinion you care to make from time to time will always receive my Ministry’s careful thought. I can assure you on behalf of the Government of Pakistan that it is their intention and policy to let the channels of free trading flow as freely as possible. In so far as the internal controls on essential commodities are concerned, my Government have already decided to review them at a conference with the Provinces in an attempt to relax and remove as many of these as circumstances would now permit So far as overseas trade is concerned a considerable sector of imports has been released from licensing by the notification of an Open General Licence for a wide range of goods coming from Commonwealth sterling countries. This list will be kept under constant review with the object of expanding it and the question of including therein imports and other soft currency areas is now receiving the attention of the Ministry for Commerce. The situation in regard to dollar imports and other hard currencies is, of course very difficult and licensing must continue to protect the balance of payments. Even in this field, however, you can assist by bending your energies to directing and increasing our exports to dollar and hard currency countries. This, fortunately, should not be difficult in the case of the major Pakistan raw materials and I shall look forward, Gentlemen to your constant support in this matter. Anything that Government cans do to facilitate exports to these areas by removing as many restrictions as possible will be done. I have little doubt, gentlemen, that your efforts in this direction will bear fruit as we are rich in the commodities which the world so badly requires, like cotton, jute, hides, skins and wool. You have made a plea that in the interests of trade. Government should make an announcement of the import policy in good time. The Government of Pakistan fully appreciates this view and will do all they can to make as early an announcement as circumstances would permit. The uncertain factors, which delayed the announcement of their policy in the past will, Government hopes, not recur in future.

The complete breakdown of the banking and financial mechanism in the West Punjab is a matter which government action alone cannot remedy. We can make the conditions as favourable as possible but bankers alone can repair the machine. It is our unalterable determination to maintain law and order and to secure and retain public confidence in our administration of affairs. In this context and given your goodwill, the reconstruction and restoration of our commerce and trade should proceed apace. This is my appeal to you today, Gentleman, to make a steady and sustained effort to help us to help you.

There is one matter, Mr. Chairman, which you have mentioned only in passing, namely, the statement issued by my Government on the Industrial Policy of Pakistan. The statement is of such far- reaching character that I would ask of you as a business community to examine it with the care and attention which the importance of the subject and the direct bearing it has on your own well-being requires. That my Government should have taken time to consider matters carefully before formulating their policy, which must vitally, effect the future of the country, is a matter that need not cause any sense of frustration. For I am reminded in the connection of an observation of that wiseman, Francis who said–”It is good to commit the beginnings of all great actions to Argos with his hundred eyes and the ends to Briarcus with his hundred hands; first to watch and then to speed” Whilst I do not propose to recapitulate the statement here, I would like to call your particular attention to the keen desire of the Government of Pakistan to associate individual initiative and private enterprise at every stage of industrialisation. The number of industries Government has reserved for management by themselves consists of Arms and Munitions of War, generation of Hydel Power and manufacture of Railway wagons, Telephone, Telegraph and Wireless apparatus. All other industrial activity is left open to private enterprise, which would be given every facility a Government can give for the establishment and development of industry. Government will seek to create conditions in which industry and trade may develop and prosper by undertaking surveys of Pakistan’s considerable resources of minerals, schemes for the development of country’s water and power resources plans for the improvement of transport services and the establishment of the ports and an Industrial Finance Corporation. Just as Pakistan is agriculturally the most advanced country in the Continent of Asia as mentioned by you, I am confident that if it makes the fullest and the best use of its considerable agricultural wealth in the building up of her industries, it will, with the traditions of craftsmanship for which her people are so well known and with their ability to adjust themselves to new techniques, soon make its mark in the industrial field. I am glad to know that you are favourably impressed with the concessions announced by the Finance Minister to new industrial enterprises in the matter of Income Tax and depreciation that you regard the statement as holding out more encouragement to new industry than the corresponding statement of policy made by the Government of India. If you want any clarification of any aspect of the policy, my Government will be only too willing to furnish the same.

Fortunately, in the port of Karachi, we have adequate facilities to handle not only the trade of Western Pakistan but also such trade as offers for Afghanistan and the adjoining areas of the Indian Dominion. For reasons into which I need not here enter, this trade has suffered a severe setback since partition. I hope that in everybody’s interest you will endeavor to restore Karachi’s standing in this regard. I have no doubt that the port of Karachi has a very bright future. It is the only port, which serves this side of Pakistan, and the location of the Pakistan Naval Headquarters had added greatly to its importance. I can look with confidence to its rapid development. The scheme for remodelling the East Wharf and the provision of Naval and Commercial Dry Docks is under our active consideration and should, when completed, make Karachi one of the most modern ports. I may assure the business community that I am watching with keen interest the present and future interests of the port.

The end of the period of “Standstill” and the consequent entry of India and Pakistan into normal international relations should advance and give precision to the movement of trade. Bonding facilities are being provided by my Government in Karachi port for this purpose. On the other side of the sub-continent, the Government of India has also agreed to provide bonding facilities in Calcutta so that from now on, the capacity of the port of Chittagong to handle raw jute will be supplemented by transit facilities through the port of Calcutta.

In the field of Civil Aviation, Pakistan is fortunate in having at Karachi, the best-equipped airport in the East. Its position and climate are in its favour and now that Karachi has become the Capital of Pakistan, there is no likelihood of the Airport ever losing its importance. Its pre-eminent position will be maintained, as we are alive to the need of its continued development in accordance with the international standards and to the need of facilitating in every way national and international air transport operations. Karachi will remain one of the main centers of international air traffic as most of the progressive countries of the world have approached us for bilateral air transport agreements and we already have agreements with U.S., France, Netherlands, Iraq and recently negotiated agreement with India and Ceylon. Delegations from U.K and other countries are expected in Karachi soon. For all these Karachi will remain the airport of entry and departure. The use of Bombay as the port of entry for Trans-World Airlines was provided for in Air Transport Agreement between U.S.A. and India before partition and does not indicate a subsequent tendency to transfer operation from Karachi to Bombay. On this service Karachi Airport was used, in the first instance, as a temporary measure pending the provision of health facilities at Santa Cruz. You have referred to the rise in airline operating costs occasioned by the recently increased cost of aviation spirits in Pakistan. This is question, which I have, no doubt will be considered by my Government in the light of your observations.

I am glad to hear that you have appreciated the difficulties which beset Orient Airways in establishing, at a very short notice, vital air communications within Pakistan between Eastern and Western Pakistan and between Karachi and Delhi and between Karachi and Bombay. These agreements had to be made on a temporary basis while a long-term national air transport was being formulated. The Government announced their policy on the 5th of December 1947, limiting air transport operations to two commercial airlines to be selected for the operation of all the scheduled services to be licensed by the Government. The names of these companies will be announced shortly together with the routes to be operated by them subject to finalisation of agreement recently negotiated with the Government of India. To serve these companies and to a large extent, the Royal Pakistan Air Force, it is also proposed to establish, at Karachi a company to carry out major overhaul and repair of aircraft, the training of mechanics and maintenance engineers, and such other common services as the Government and airlines may require. The Government will participate financially in this enterprise and plans for the establishment of this company are now under active consideration of the Government.

You have referred to the difficulties experienced by your members on account of the uncertainty of booking restrictions. As you are aware, booking restrictions have been rendered necessary on account of coal shortage due to spasmodic and insufficient receipt from India. The NorthWestern Railway has always endeavoured to move as much traffic as possible with their available resources. The movement of refugees placed a heavy strain on the Railway’s capacity at a time when coal receipts were at their lowest, but in spite of these difficulties essential goods, e.g. food-stuffs, kept on moving though restrictions had perforce to be imposed on the movement of goods carried under lower priorities. The Railways, however, relaxed restrictions to the extent possible whenever there was even a slight improvement in coal receipts, but whenever the coal position deteriorated restrictions were reimposed. In spite of the manifold difficulties created by inadequate supplies of coal from India, the refugee traffic, the numerous staff problems created by partition, the Railway administration, as and when the position improved, restored the facilities which had to be curtailed from time to time. I hope that the Chamber would appreciate their efforts in keeping the rail transport going. There was some improvement in the coal position on the NorthWestern Railway during February and March and as you are aware, unrestricted booking was resumed with effect from 4th March in local bookings and from 12th April in foreign bookings. Unfortunately, coal supplies from India have been inadequate during April and, although some of the coal ordered from the U.S.A. has been received, stocks are dwindling. Representations have been made to India, and it is hoped that there will be no reimposition of the previous unfortunate restrictions, except those occasionally imposed for operational reasons.

As regards the complaint that the railway staffs at stations are unaware of the restrictions imposed from time to time, I am advised that all restrictions are conveyed to stations immediately on their imposition. It is possible that in the early days after partition, due to large-scale transfers of staffs, there was a certain amount of dis-organisation resulting in incorrect information being furnished to merchants. The NorthWestern Railway has, however, taken suitable action to ensure that correct information relating to restrictions is conveyed to merchants.

As regards preparatition claims, I hope you are aware of the provisions of the Indian Independence (Rights, Property and Liabilities) Order 1947, under which the liabilities and financial obligations of the governor-general in Council, outstanding immediately before 15th August, 1947, devolved on the Dominion of India. The Pakistan Government has already made the position in this respect clear in their press note of the 25th March 1948. The matter is under correspondence with the Government of India and it is hoped that a settlement in regard to this outstanding question will be reached at an early date.

Reference has been made by you to the difficulties and anxieties, which naturally spring, from shortage of residential and office accommodation in this town. The Government of Pakistan has, subject to the approval of the Constituent Assembly, decided to locate the permanent Capital of Pakistan at Karachi. Detailed planning of the layout will take some time but this should not delay construction of some residential accommodation. In this field, as in many others, gentlemen, you have a big contribution to make. There are vast open areas where buildings could, with advantage, be constructed. Building materials such as cement and stone are available in abundance, though steel and timber are rather scarce. All the same, my Government would like to see the business community take up a program of large-scale building construction in Karachi.

Mr. Chairman, Commerce and Trade are the very lifeblood of the nation. I can no more visualise a Pakistan without traders than I can one without cultivators or civil servants. I have no doubt that in Pakistan, traders and merchants will always be welcome and that they, in building up their own fortunes, will not forget their social responsibility for a fair and square deal to one and all, big and small. Government have for sometime been perturbed over the constantly rising spiral of prices of the necessities of life in Pakistan. They are now engaged in a study of how best the spiral could be broken and prices brought down. I have little doubt that my Government can confidently count on your full support in every measure they may decide to take to achieve this object

Commerce, Gentlemen, is more international than culture and it behaves you to behave in such a way that the power and prestige of Pakistan gain added strength from every act of yours. I have no doubt the Commerce of Pakistan would be an effective instrument in the establishment and maintenance of high standards of business integrity and practice. If Pakistani goods are to establish for themselves a reputation all their own, a beginning must be made now and here. I assure you, Gentlemen, that anything my Government can do to achieve this end, and they shall do. I would like Pakistan to become a synonym and hallmark for standard and quality in the market places of the world.

Let me, Mr. Chairman, thank you once again for the honour you have done me in asking me to be the guest of your Chamber on this occasion. I wish you and your Chamber well in the many years that lie ahead of us and may you as true Pakistanis help to reconstruct and build Pakistan to reach mighty and glorious status amongst the comity of nations of the world and that let us pray that Pakistan will make its contribution for peace, happiness and prosperity of the world.

Pakistan Zindabad

Educational progress of Frontier Province (18th Apr 1948)

Reply to the Address of Welcome Presented by the Principal, Staff and Students of the Edwards College, Peshawar on l8th April, 1948.

Mr. Principal, Members of the Staff and my Student-friends,

I am no stranger to this Institution. I came here, as your Address rightly records, in 1936. Well, perhaps many of you do not know what happened then, but, Mr. Principal, the sympathy and the kindness that your Institution showed me at that time, I shall always remember. I was, to put it one word, literally dismissed from this Province in 1937. But that did not dishearten me, I came again, I believe, in 1945 or 1946 during the time of the last election. I found then that there was a great change, but, unfortunately, on that occasion also we were defeated. I do not like to remind you of unpleasant things. My young friends, ladies and gentlemen, I would say one word and it is this that this Province of yours had to undergo a lot of suffering and trouble, but it was ultimately saved by the Grace of God. Today, I am happy to see better things here. What more can one really expect than to see that this mighty land has now been brought under a rule, which is Islamic, Muslim rule, as a sovereign independent State. Now, we have much more difficult task ahead–how to reconstruct, how to build it up and how to revolutionise and re-model the past legacies from which we are suffering, namely, the mentality, the character and the evil customs of which we have been the victims for a century or more as slave people.

Mr. Principal, everytime I came, your Institution was kind to me and today, you were good enough to pay me a compliment of the highest order. I thank you, your Staff and my young friends. I am very glad to note from the address of the development of this Institution. The history of your College is one, which any student should feel proud of. It is very gratifying to learn of your many activities in the realm of education and the spreading of knowledge and learning amongst the people of the Frontier. In your Address, Mr. Principal, you have touched on subjects to which I am paying close attention. I am glad you are giving a new re-orientation to the system of education. I entirely agree that instead of turning mere clerks and Government servants, your College is now offering suitable subjects for students, which would enable them to take their places in commerce, trade, industry, banking and insurance business. It should be the aim of our Colleges to produce first class experts in Agriculture, Zoology, Engineering, Medicine and other specialised subjects. Only thus shall we be able to come to grips with the problems that are now facing us in the task of raising the standard of living, especially of the common man. The interest of Frontier Province is naturally close to my heart. Its affairs are more directly the concern of the Office that I have the honour to hold. I can assure you; therefore, I shall watch with great interest what this Institution is doing to help in spreading education amongst the people of this Province. I am very glad to note that the Provincial Government and your Prime Minister are looking after your Institution so well and extend to you their help and guidance. Mr. Principal, this is the most refreshing note that I have observed in your Address, a thing that is generally very rare. It is when you say, “we do not mean to take this opportunity of placing our needs before you, because we are being very well looked after by the Hon’ble Prime Minister, Khan Abdul Qayum Khan, who is a great source of inspiration to us”. This is, as I have said, very rare. Generally every class, every section, every association, every individual is used to a system and a method. It is either full of praises and flattery, which is demoralising, or it is full of grievances and complaints. Most of the Addresses are nothing, but petitions and prayers.

Ladies and Gentlemen, I do not blame you. It is the fault of the system under which we have been working and which has so demoralised our people. They do not see they cannot realise what a revolutionary and basic change has taken place. Now, you have not to submit petitions and prayers. This Government is your Government. But every Government is slow to move with regard to its policy, with regard to its program. The Administration moves in a particular way, and this applies to every sovereign independent Government. No doubt, I do not claim that ours is a model Administration. Far from it. I do not say that our Government has, within the few months that we have been in power, been always right. No, far from it. There is plenty improvement in our room for Administration and in those who are in-charge of the Government, the Ministers in the Provinces and at the Center, including myself. Everyday we learn, but now I want you to keep your heads up as citizens of a free and independent sovereign State.

Praise your government when it deserves, Criticise your government fearlessly when it deserves, but, do not go on all the time attacking, including in destructive criticism, taking delight in running down the Ministry or the Officials. They are not now bureaucrats. This is not a foreign Government that you should take delight in exaggerating things, in indulging in destructive criticism. This is your Government. It is quite different from its predecessor. Therefore, appreciate when a good thing is done. Certainly criticise fearlessly, when a wrong thing is done. I welcome criticism, but it must be honest and constructive. Mind you, by that method you will improve matters more quickly for the benefit of our own people.

Mr. Principal, Ladies and Gentlemen, I thank you for the honour you have done this and me is the third time that you have received me so warmly. I hope in future also, I shall have the honour and the opportunity of visiting your Institution.

Pakistan Zindabad

Essential qualities of a regiment (15th Apr 1948)

Address at the Presentation of Colours to the 2/15th Punjab Machine Gun Regiment, Peshawar, on I5th April, 1948.

This occasion, which has afforded me opportunity of presenting colours to your Regiment, is an honour of which I need hardly say that I feel very proud. The qualities that are required for the making of a Regiment like yours of a very high order such as an unbounded sense of discipline, loyalty, and selfless devotion to duty and physical endurance. A man cannot at all times be thinking of great qualities; –and indeed he would be a poor sort of man if he were to lose himself in an analysis of qualities–but let me tell you in a nutshell, they are all embodied in one simple phrase–loyalty to your Regiment–and your colours are a symbol and a reminder of what your Regiment stands for just as you stand for your nation. It is not for me to praise your records in the battles that you have fought: that is a matter of history and facts. But I may venture to say that I have learnt of your heroic deed with great interest and pride. But a Regiment has much more to do than be in the firing lines of the battlefield, and you have, I hope, more years of peace than war before you.

Live always true to the ideals to which you have just dedicated yourselves afresh–to the service of Pakistan, and make your contribution to the protection of the weak and to the hollowed memory of your comrades and thus enhance the glory of Islam.

It is not words that count so much as deeds and-I am confident that you will live up to your traditions when you are called upon to defend your country and the safety and security of your nation. You will, I am sure, hold aloft the banner of Pakistan and maintain its honour and prestige as a great nation.

In your new journey, let me tell you that you have my best wishes.

Pakistan Zindabad

The Frontier policy of Pakistan (14 Apr 1948)

Address to the Tribal Jirga at Government House, Peshawar on 17th April, 1948.

I have been looking forward since long to meet you, representatives of the Tribes of the North-West Frontier, and it has given me very great pleasure indeed to have met you here today. I am sorry I have not been able to visit you in your own part of the country, but I hope to be able to do so sometime in the future.

I thank you for you’re welcome to me and for the kind personal references you have made about me. Whatever I have done, I did as a servant of Islam, and only tried to perform my duty and made every possible contribution within my power to help our nation. It has been my constant endeavour to try to bring about unity among Mussalmans, and I hope that in the great task of reconstruction and building up Great and Glorious Pakistan, that is ahead of us, you realize that solidarity is now more essential than it ever was for achieving Pakistan, which by the Grace of God we have already done. I am sure that I shall have your fullest support in this mission. I want every Mussalman to do his utmost and help me and support me in creating complete solidarity among the Mussalmans, and I am confident that you will not lag behind any other individual or part of Pakistan. We Mussalmans believe in one God, one book–the Holy Quran–and one Prophet. So we must stand united as one Nation. You know the old saying that in unity lies strength united we stand, divided we fall.

I am glad to note that you have pledged your loyalty to Pakistan, and that you will help Pakistan with all your resources and ability. I appreciate this solemn declaration made by you today. I am fully aware of the part that you have already played in the establishment of Pakistan, and I am thankful to you for all the sympathy and support you gave me in my struggle and fight for the establishment of Pakistan. Keeping in view your loyalty, help, assurances and declarations we ordered, as you know, the withdrawal of troops from Waziristan as a concrete and definite gesture on our part–that we treat you with absolute confidence and trust you as our Muslim brethren across the border. I am glad that there is full realization on your part that now the position is basically different. It is no longer a foreign Government as it was, but it is now a Muslim government and Muslim rule that holds the reigns of this great independent sovereign State of Pakistan. It is now the duty of every Mussalman, yours and mine, and every Pakistani to see that the State, which we have established, is strengthened in every department of life and made prosperous and happy for all, especially the poor and the needy.

Pakistan has no desire to unduly interfere with your internal freedom. On the contrary; Pakistan wants to help you and make you, as far as it lies in our power, self-reliant and self-sufficient and help in your educational, social and economic uplift, and not be left as you are dependent on annual doles, as has been the practice hitherto which meant that at the end of the year you were no better off than beggars asking for allowances, if possible a little more. We want to put you on your legs as self-respecting citizens who have the opportunities of fully developing and producing what is best in you and your land. You know that the Frontier Province is a deficit province, but that does not trouble us so much. Pakistan will not hesitate to go out of its way to give every possible help–financial and otherwise–to build up the economic and social life of our tribal brethren across the border.

I agree with you that education is absolutely essential, and I am glad that you appreciate the value of it. It will certainly be my constant solicitude and indeed that of my Government to try to help you to educate your children and with your co-operation and help we may very soon succeed in making a great progress in this direction.

Your desire for entering the Pakistan Service in the Civil and Military will receive my full consideration and that of my Government, and I hope that some progress would be made in this direction also without unnecessary delay.

You have also expressed your desire that the benefit, such as your allowances and khassadari, that you have had in the past and are receiving, should continue. Neither my Government nor I have any desire to modify the existing arrangements except, in consultation with you, so long as you remain loyal and faithful to Pakistan.

I know there has been scarcity of foodgrains, cloth, and sugar. You must realize that we have all been passing through difficult times all over the world and Pakistan is no exception; indeed the whole world is facing hardships, but we are not unmindful of this problem, and we are endeavouring to the utmost of our capacity, with special care for Baluchistan and the Frontier Province, and you will not be neglected in. this respect. We will do our utmost to see that essential commodities reach you in time and in reasonably sufficient quantities. I am hoping and looking forward to the time when more normal conditions may present themselves to us, so that we may be able to live with more ease and comfort in the way of food, clothing, housing and all the necessities of life.

In the end, I warmly thank you for the wholehearted and unstinted declaration of your pledge and your assurances to support Pakistan, so that it may reach the pinnacle of glories of Islam and become a great and mighty nation among other nations of the world.

Pakistan Zindabad

Administration must be impartial -Advice to Govt. servants (14th Apr 1948)

Informal talk to Civil Officers at Government House, Peshawar on 14th April, 1948.

The reason why I wanted to meet you is that I wanted to say a few words to you, who are occupying very important position in the administration of Pakistan in this Province.

The first thing that I want to tell you is this, that you should not be influenced by any political pressure, by any political party or individual politician. If you want to raise the prestige and greatness of Pakistan, you must not fall a victim to any pressure, but do your duty as servants to the people and the State, fearlessly and honestly. Service is the backbone of the State. Governments are formed, Government is defeated, Prime Ministers come and go, Ministers come and go, but you stay on, and, therefore, there is a very great responsibility placed on your shoulders. You should have no hand in supporting this political party or that political leader–this is not your business. Whichever Government is formed according to the constitution, and whoever happens to be the Prime Minister or Minister coming into power in the ordinary constitutional course, your duty is not only to serve that government loyally and faithfully, but, at the same time, fearlessly, maintaining your high reputation, your prestige, your honour and the integrity of your service. If you will start with that determination, you will make a great contribution to the building up of Pakistan of our conception and our dream–a glorious State and one of the greatest nations in the world.

While impressing this upon you on your side, I wish also to take the opportunity of impressing upon our leaders and politicians in the same way that if they ever try to interfere with you and bring political pressure to bear upon you, which leads to nothing but corruption, bribery and nepotism; –which is a horrible disease, and for which not only your province, but others too, are suffering–if they try and interfere with you in this way, I say, they are doing nothing but disservice to Pakistan.

I hope that each one of you will understand hi, own sphere of duty and responsibility and act with others harmoniously and in complete co-operation, keeping in mind that each has to do his duty within the sphere to which he belongs. If you on your side start with that determination and enthusiasm–and I hope the other side will also realise what terrible evil they are raising up and how it demoralises the service to try and influence this department or that department; this officer or that officer–and if you will stick to your determination you will have done a great service to your nation. Putting pressure and influence on service people, I know is a very common fault of politicians and those today, resolve and determine to act according to my humble advice that I am giving you.

May be some of you may fall victims for not satisfying the whims of Ministers. I hope it does not happen, but you may even be put to trouble not because you are doing anything wrong but because you are doing right. Sacrifices have to be made and I appeal to you, if need be, to come forward and make the sacrifice and face the position of being put on the blacklist or being otherwise worried or troubled. If you will give me the opportunity of your sacrifices, some of you at least, believe me; we will find a remedy for that very soon. I tell you that you will not remain on the blacklist if you discharge your duties and responsibilities honestly, sincerely and loyally to the State. It is you who can give us the opportunity to create powerful machinery, which will give you a complete sense of security.

Everybody should realise that there is a fundamental and vital change of the entire Government and the constitution under which we are working. You should try to create an atmosphere and work in such a spirit that everybody gets a fair clean and justice is done to everybody. And not merely should justice be done but people should feel that justice has been doneto them. There may be some selfish people–and I know your class is no exception–who think of immediate advantages, and work or act for better prospects and promotions and so on for themselves, and therefore, for the time being, they create difficulties and sometimes they start slogans about outsiders such as Punjabi, Sindhis or Pathans all such things are a hindrance and an obstruction in the way of galvanising the people and welding them together as a great nation. It is not that we want to put any difficulty in the way of the sons of the province. No doubt, it is your province; if you have men who are fit for high jobs, I assure you, they will not escape our notice. You should draw our attention and tell us that here is a man; and not only shall we be very glad that he should flourish, prosper and progress in this province, but we shall see to it that he is given his proper place in Pakistan. We want men who are fit for high jobs and sometimes it is really difficult to find the right type of men. There are so many things that are going on and I sometimes find great difficulty in getting the right man for the right post. It is very difficult; I am trying my very best to get the right men. If you will give me time and your support and cooperation, believe me, that the field for service is not going to be confined so far as you are concerned, to your province but will be extended to the whole of Pakistan. Of course, it must take time; it cannot be done at once. I hope that with assistance, co-operation and support from you and from the people, we shall be able to make very rapid progress.

Finally, I congratulate you for having done well so far. The dangerous position, in which we were placed when we took over power from the British Government, has passed.

It was a big task and things were made difficult for us. I need not go into details, but you know how we were constantly faced with an organised plan to crush Pakistan and to break us. In other provinces as well as in your province, the services have done well in spite of all that. We have warded off and withstood all machinations, and your province has not lagged behind in this respect. And, therefore, I sincerely congratulate you for the way is which you have managed things here, and I hope that you will continue in the same spirit. There is plenty of room for improvement. We have to learn a lot and we have to adjust ourselves to new developments, new issues which are facing us. But I am sure you will play your part well.

I thank you for giving me this opportunity of saying these few words. I wish you all success in efforts.

Pakistan Zindabad

Strong Air Force - A shield against aggression (13th Apr 1948)

Speech to the Royal Pakistan Air Force Station Risalpur on 13th April, 1948.

It gives me great pleasure to pay my first visit to a unit of the Royal Pakistan Air Force. There is no doubt that any country without a strong Air Force is at the mercy of any aggressor. Pakistan must build up her Air Force as quickly as possible. It must be an efficient Air Force second to none and must take its right place with the Army and the Navy in securing Pakistan’s defence.

I am well aware of air developments in other countries and my Government is determined that the Royal Pakistan Air Force will not lee behind.

The Royal Pakistan Air Force has started with very few assets, except loyalty and determination, to succeed. But the Royal Pakistan Air Force is already taking shape; this school formed only 7 months ago is a worthy example of this.

I know also that you are short of aircraft and equipment, but efforts are being made to procure the necessary equipment and orders for modern aircraft have also been placed.

But aircraft and personnel in any numbers are of little use, unless there is a team spirit within the Air Force and a strict sense of discipline prevails. I charge you to remember that only with discipline and self-reliance can the Royal Pakistan Air Force be worthy of Pakistan.

I am pleased to learn of the progress which this School has made and as desired by the Commander and yourselves I name it from today “The Royal Pakistan Air Force College”

I thank you all and I wish your school and yourselves all success.

Pakistan Zindabad

Importance of physical culture (12th Apr 1948)

Message to the First Olympic Games on 12th April 1948.

For sound minds we should have sound bodies and that is why nations the world over attach so much importance to boy-building and physical culture. The first Pakistan Olympic Games should act as an incentive to all Pakistan nationals to emulate the Olympic Motto “Citius, Althius, Fortiusn” i.e. “Faster, Higher and stronger” I wish the organizers of the games and all competitors the best of luck. Build up Pakistan higher, firmer and stronger.

Pakistan Zindabad

M.A. Jinnah Quotes

  • We are starting with this fundamental principle that we are all citizens and equal citizens of one State.(Presidential Address to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on 11th August, 1947.)
  • The constitution of Pakistan has yet to be framed by the Pakistan Constituent Assembly. I do not know what the ultimate shape of this constitution is going to be, but I am sure that it will be of a democratic type, embodying the essential principle of Islam. Today, they are as applicable in actual life as they were 1,300 years ago. Islam and its idealism have taught us democracy. It has taught equality of man, justice and fairplay to everybody. We are the inheritors of these glorious traditions and are fully alive to our responsibilities and obligations as framers of the future constitution of Pakistan. In any case Pakistan is not going to be a theocratic State to be ruled by priests with a divine mission. We have many non-Muslims --Hindus, Christians, and Parsis --but they are all Pakistanis. They will enjoy the same rights and privileges as any other citizens and will play their rightful part in the affairs of Pakistan.(Broadcast talk to the people of the United States of America on Pakistan recorded February, 1948.)
  • As you know, history shows that in England conditions, some time ago, were much worse than those prevailing in India today. The Roman Catholics and the Protestants persecuted each other. Even now there are some States in existence where there are discriminations made and bars imposed against a particular class. Thank God, we are not starting in those days. We are starting in the days when there is no discrimination, no distinction between one community and another, no discrimination between one caste or creed and another. We are starting with this fundamental principle that we are all citizens and equal citizens of one State. (Presidential Address to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on 11th August, 1947.)
  •  The great majority of us are Muslims. We follow the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed (may peace be upon him). We are members of the brotherhood of Islam in which all are equal in rights, dignity and self-respect. Consequently, we have a special and a very deep sense of unity. But make no mistake: Pakistan is not a theocracy or anything like it. (Broadcast talk to the people of Australia recorded on 19th February, 1948.)
  • There is no power on earth that can undo Pakistan. (Speech at a Mammoth Rally at the University Stadium, Lahore on 30th October. 1947.)
  • Yet this is a truth people so easily seem to forget and begin to prize local, sectional or provincial interests above and regardless of the national interests. It naturally pains me to find the curse of provincialism holding sway over any section of Pakistan. Pakistan must be rid of this evil. (Reply to the Civic Address presented by the Quetta Municipality on 15th June, 1948)
  • We are now all Pakistanis--not Baluchis, Pathans, Sindhis, Bengalis, Punjabis and so on--and as Pakistanis we must feet behave and act, and we should be proud to be known as Pakistanis and nothing else. (Reply to the Civic Address presented by the Quetta Municipality on 15th June, 1948.)

  • You are free; you are free to go to your temples. You are free to go to your mosques or to any other places of worship in this State of Pakistan. You may belong to any religion, caste or creed --that has nothing to do with the business of the State. (Presidential Address to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on 11th August, 1947.)
  • The Constituent Assembly has got two main functions to perform. The first is the very onerous and responsible task of framing our future Constitution of Pakistan and the second of functioning as a full and complete Sovereign body as the Federal Legislature of Pakistan. (Presidential Address to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on 11th August, 1947.)
  • The first and the foremost thing that I would like to emphasize is this --remember that you are now a Sovereign Legislative body and you have got all the powers. It, therefore, places on you the gravest responsibility as to how you should take your decisions. (Presidential Address to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on 11th August, 1947.)
  • My guiding principle will be justice and complete impartiality, and I am sure that with your support and co-operation, I can look forward to Pakistan becoming one of the greatest Nations of the world. (Presidential Address to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on 11th August, 1947.)
  • The Story of Pakistan, its struggle and its achievement, is the very story of great human ideals, struggling to survive in the face of great odds and difficulties. (Address to the people in Chittagong, 23rd March, 1948.)
  • We should have a State in which we could live and breathe as free men and which we could develop according to our own lights and culture and where principles of Islamic social justice could find free play. (Address to Civil, Naval, Military and Air Force Officers of Pakistan Government, Karachi October 11, 1947.)
  • We should begin to work in that spirit and in course of time all these angularities of the majority and minority communities will vanish. (Presidential Address to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on 11th August, 1947.)
  • The exploits of your leaders in many a historic field of battle; the progress of your Revolution; the rise and career of the great Ataturk, his revitalization of your nation by his great statesmanship, courage and foresight all these stirring events are well-known to the people of Pakistan. (Reply to the speech made by the first Turkish Ambassador to Pakistan at the time of presenting Credentials to the Quaid-i-Azam on 4th March. 1948.)
  • I have nothing to do with this pseudo-religious approach that Gandhi is advocating. (Jinnah speaking to Durga Das in London.)
  • Think 100 times before you take a decision, But once that decision is taken, stand by it as one man. (In 1937, following elections held under the new government of India Act.)
  • I have always maintained that no nation can ever be worthy of its existence that cannot take its women along with the men. No struggle can ever succeed without women participating side by side with men. There are two powers in the world; one is the sword and the other is the pen. There is a great competition and rivalry between the two. There is a third power stronger than both, that of the women. (Speech at Islamia College for women March 25, 1940.)
  • Any idea of a United India could never have worked and in my judgment it would have led us to terrific disaster. (Presidential Address to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on 11th August, 1947.)
  • The prosperity and advancement of a nation depend upon its intelligentsia, and Muslim India is looking forward to her young generation and education classes to give a bold lead for our guidance and a brilliant record of historical achievements and traditions. (December 24, 1940.)
  • I particularly appeal to our intelligentsia and students to come forward and rise to the occasion. You have performed wonders in the past. You are still capable of repeating the history. You are not lacking in the great qualities and virtues in comparison with the other nations. Only you have to be fully conscious of that fact and to act with courage, faith and unity. (Message to Pakistan Day, issued from Delhi March 23, 1943.)
  • No nation can rise to the height of glory unless your women are side by side with you. We are victims of evil customs. It is a crime against humanity that our women are shut up within the four walls of the houses as prisoners. There is no sanction anywhere for the deplorable condition in which our women have to live. (Speech at a meeting of the Muslim University Union, Aligarh March 10, 1944.)
  • Our object should be peace within, and peace without. We want to live peacefully and maintain cordial friendly relations with our immediate neighbours and with the world at large. (Lahore, August 15th, 1947.)
  • My message to you all is of hope, courage and confidence. Let us mobilize all our resources in a systematic and organized way and tackle the grave issues that confront us with grim determination and discipline worthy of a great nation. (Eid-ul-Azha Message to the Nation October 24, 1947.)
  • You have to stand guard over the development and maintenance of democracy, social justice and the equality of manhood in your own native soil. With faith, discipline and selfless devotion to duty, there is nothing worthwhile that you cannot achieve. (Address to the officers and men of the 5th Heavy Ack Ack and 6th Light Ack Ack Regiments in Malir, Karachi February 21, 1948.)
  • That freedom can never be attained by a nation without suffering and sacrifice has been amply borne out by the recent tragic happenings in this subcontinent. We are in the midst of unparalleled difficulties and untold sufferings; we have been through dark days of apprehension and anguish; but I can say with confidence that with courage and self-reliance and by the Grace of God we shall emerge triumphant. (Speech at a Mammoth Rally at the University Stadium, Lahore October 30, 1947.)
  • We must work our destiny in our own way and present to the world an economic system based on true Islamic concept of equality of manhood and social justice. We will thereby be fulfilling our mission as Muslims and giving to humanity the message of peace which alone can save it and secure the welfare, happiness and prosperity of mankind. (Speech at the opening ceremony of the State Bank of Pakistan, Karachi July 1, 1948.)
  • I have lived as plain Mr. Jinnah and I hope to die as plain Mr. Jinnah. I am very much averse to any title or honours and I will be more than happy if there was no prefix to my name.
  •  There are two powers in the world; one is the sword and the other is the pen. There is a great competition and rivalry between the two. There is a third power stronger than both, that of the women.
  • If we want to make this great State of Pakistan happy and prosperous we should wholly and solely concentrate on the well-being of the people, and especially of the masses and the poor... you are free- you are free to go to your temples mosques or any other place of worship in this state of Pakistan.
  • Come forward as servants of Islam, organise the people economically, socially, educationally and politically and I am sure that you will be a power that will be accepted by everybody.
  • Pakistan not only means freedom and independence but the Muslim Ideology which has to be preserved, which has come to us as a precious gift and treasure and which, we hope other will share with us.
  • You have to stand guard over the development and maintenance of Islamic democracy, Islamic social justice and the equality of manhood in your own native soil.
  • I have always maintained that no nation can ever be worthy of its existence that cannot take its women along with the men.
  • No struggle can ever succeed without women participating side by side with men.
  • Islam expect every Muslim to do this duty, and if we realise our responsibility time will come soon when we shall justify ourselves worthy of a glorious past.
  • You have asked me to give you a message. What message can I give you? We have got the great message in the Quran for our guidance and enlightenment. (Message to NWFP Muslim Students Federation, April 1943)
    • Do not forget that the armed forces are the servants of the people and you do not make national policy; it is we, the civilians, who decide these issues and it is your duty to carry out these tasks with which you are entrusted”. (Quaid-e-Azam to Armed Forces; Aug 14, 1947) 
    • Pakistan is proud of her youth, particularly the students, who are nation builders of tomorrow. They must fully equip themselves by discipline, education, and training for the arduous task lying ahead of them.
    • In Pakistan lies our deliverance, defence and honour.
    • It is also necassary to have an independent press in order to counteract false and malicious propaganda.
    • We are now all Pakistanis. We must develop a sense of patriotism which should galvanize and weld us all into one united and strong nation.
    • No doubt, there are many people who do not quite appreciate when we talk of Islam. Islam is not only a set of rituals, traditions and spiritual doctrines. Islam is also a code for every Muslim, which regulates his life and his conduct in even politics and economics and the like. It is based upon highest principles of honour, integrity, fair play and justice for all. (March 5,1948)
    • Expect the best, Prepare for the worst.
    • With faith, discipline and selfless devotion to duty, there is nothing worthwhile that you cannot achieve.
    • You have to stand guard over the development and maintenance of Islamic democracy, Islamic social justice and the equality of manhood in your own native soil.
    • We must work our destiny in our own way and present to the world an economic system based on true Islamic concept of equality of manhood and social justice. We will thereby be fulfilling our mission as Muslims and giving to humanity the message of peace which alone can save it and secure the welfare, happiness and prosperity of mankind. (Speech at the opening ceremony of State Bank of Pakistan, Karachi July 1, 1948)
    • I shall always be guided by the principles of justice and fairplay without any, as is put in the political language, prejudice or ill-will, in other words, partiality or favouritism. My guiding principle will be justice and complete impartiality, and I am sure that with your support and co-operation, I can look forward to Pakistan becoming one of the greatest nations of the world.
    • The vital contest in which we are engaged is not only for the material gain but also the very existence of the soul of Muslim nation, Hence I have said often that it is a matter of life and death to the Musalmans and is not a counter for bargaining. (Predisential Address devlivered at the Special Pakistan Session of the Punjab Muslim Students Federation - March 2, 1941)
    • Finally, let me tell you, fellow citizens, Pakistan is a land of great potential resources. But to build it up into a country worthy of the Muslim nation, we shall require every ounce of energy that we possess and I am confident that it will come from all whole-heartedly. (Broadcast Message 15th August, 1947)
    • The establishment of Pakistan for which we have been striving for the last ten years is, by grace of God, an established fact today, but the creation of a State of our own was a means to an end and not the end in itself. The idea was that we should have a state in which we could live and breathe as free men and which we could develop according to our own lights and culture and where principles of Islamic social justice could find fairplay. (Broadcast Message 15th August, 1947)
    • Work honestly and sincerely and be faithful and loyal to the Pakistan Government. I can assure you that there is nothing greater in this world than your own conscience and, when you appear before God, you can say that you performed your duty with the highest sense of integrity, honesty and with loyalty and faithfulness. (Broadcast Message February, 1948)
    • In our solidarity, unity and discipline lie the strength, power and sanction behind us to carry on this fight successfully. No sacrifice should be considered too great….” (Broadcast Message February, 1948)
    • My young friends, I look forward to you as the real makers of Pakistan, do not be exploited and do not be misled. Create amongst yourselves complete unity and solidarity. Set an example of what youth can do. Your main occupation should be in fairness to yourself, to your parents, in fairness to the State, to devote your attention to your studies. If you fritter away your energies now, you will always regret.
    • Remember we are building up a State which is going to play its full part in the destinies of the whole Islamic World. We, therefore, need a wider look, an outlook which transcends the boundaries of provinces, limited nationalism, and racialism. We must develop a sense of patriotism which should galvanize us all into one united and strong nation. That is the only way in which we can achieve our goal, the goal of our struggle, the goal for which millions of Mussalmans have lost their lives.
    • We have weathered the worst storms and the safety of the shore, though distant, is in sight. We can look to the future with robust confidence provided we do not relax and fritter away our energies in internal dissensions. There never was greater need for discipline and unity in our ranks. It is only with united effort and faith in our destiny that we shall be able to translate the Pakistan of our dreams into reality.
    • Without education it is complete darkness and with education it is light. Education is a matter of life and death to our nation. The world is moving so fast that if you do not educate yourselves you will be not only completely left behind, but will be finished up. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) had enjoined his followers to go even to China in the pursuit of knowledge. If that was the commandment in those days when communications were difficult, then, truly, Muslims as the true followers of the glorious heritage of Islam, should surely utilize all available opportunities. No sacrifice of time or personal comfort should be regarded too great for the advancement of the cause of education.
    • We have reached at a juncture where i shall be neglecting my prime duties if i donot make the muslims point of view known to this august audience.
    • I wish to informe everyone openly that the hindu muslim dispute must be settle before the enforcement of any system or constitution.or your enforce shall not last for more then 24 hours. (1931-In a round table confrence)
    • No settlement with the majority is possible as no hindu leader speaking with any authority shows any concern or genuine desire for it. (1937-Congress Finally)
    • Great Britain wants to rule india, Mr.Gandhi & the Congress wants to rule India & the Muslims. We say that we will not let either the Brition or Mr.Gandhi to rule Muslims, we want to be free. (Congress Forum 1939)
    • Mr.Ghandi never says what he means & he never means what he says. (Addressing to All India Muslim League)
    • Develop a sound sence of dicipline,Character,Initiative and a solid Academic Background.You must devote yourself whole-heartedly to your studies, for that is your first obligation to yourselves, your parents and to the State.You must learn to obey for only then you can learn to command. (Islamic College, Peshawar - 12th April, 1948)
    • The weak and the defenseless in this world invite aggression from others. The best way we can serve peace is by removing the temptation from the path of those who think we are weak and, for that reason, they can bully or attack us. That temptation can only be removed if we make ourselves so strong that nobody dare entertain any aggressive designs against us. Pakistan has come to stay and no power on earth can destroy it. ( February, 1948 )
    • No doubt there are many people who do not quite appreciate when we talk of Islam. Some of our non-Muslim friends who do not quite appreciate when we talk of Islam. Islam is not only a set of rituals, traditions, and spiritual doctrines. Islam is a code for every Muslim, which regulates his life and his conduct in all aspects, social, political economic, etc. It is based on highest principles of honour, integrity, fairplay and justice for all. ( January 25, 1948 - Addressed the Sindh Bar Association)
    • Now you have to stand guard over the development and maintenance of Islamic democracy, Islamic social justice and equality of manhood in your own native soil. ( On February 21, 1948, while addressing the men and officers of the 5th Heavy Ack Ack and 6th” Light Ack Ack Regiments at Malir )
    • The Hindu Muslim dispute must be settled before the enforcement of any system or constitution. Until you do not give guarantee for the safeguard of the Muslim interests, until you do not win their (Muslims) co-operations, any constitution you enforece shall not last for even 24 hours. (Address At Second Round Table Conference in 1931)
    • The Muslims are a nation by every right to establish their separate homeland. They can adopt any means to promote and protect their economic social, political and cultural interests.
    • The Mussalmans are not a minority. They are a nation by any definition. By all canons of International law we are a nation. (On 23rd March, 1940 at the historic session of the Muslim League at Lahore)
    • India is not a nation, nor a country. It is a Sub Continent of nationalities. Hindus and Muslims being the two major nations. The Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religions, philosophies, social customs and literature. They neither intermarry nor inter dine and they belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their aspects on life and of are different. It is quite clear that Hindus and Muslims derive their inspiration from different sources of history. (Presidential address at the annual session of Muslim League at Lahore in 1940)
    • Hindus and Muslims through living in the same town and villages had never been blended into one nation. They were always two separate entities. (On March 8, 1944 while addressing the students of Muslim University)
    • What relationships knits the Muslims into one whole, which is the formidable rock on which the Muslim edifice has been erected, which is the sheet anchor providing base to the Muslim Millat, the relationship, the sheet anchor and the rock is Holy Quran. (Address At Islamia College Peshawar)
    • We do not demand Pakistan simply to have a piece of land but we want a laboratory where we could experiment on Islamic principles. (In 1946, at Islamia College)
    • Pakistan not only means freedom and independence but Muslim ideology, which has to be preserved which came to us as a precious gift and treasure and which we hope, other will share with us. (Message to the Frontier Muslim Students Federation)
    • We have to fight a double-edged battle, one against the Hindu Congress and the other against British Imperialists, both of them being capitalists. The Muslims demand Pakistan where they could rule according to their own code of life and according to their own cultural growth, traditions, and Islamic Laws. (Muslim League Conference on November 21, 1945 )
    • Remember! We are building up a State which is going to play its full part in the destinies of the whole Islamic World. (12th April, 1948)
    • I have one underlying principle in mind: the principle of Muslim democracy. It is my belief that our salvation lies in following the golden rules of conduct set for us by our great lawgiver, the Prophet of Islam. (1948)
    • Everyone, except those who are ignorant, knows that the Quran is the general code of the Muslims. A religious, social, civil, commercial, military, judicial, criminal, penal code, it regulates everything from the ceremonies of religion to those of daily life; from the salvation of the soul to the health of the body; from the rights of all to those of each individual; from morality to crime, from punishment here to that in the life to come, and our Prophet has enjoined on us that every Musalman should possess a copy of the Quran and be his own priest. Therefore Islam is not merely confined to the spiritual tenets and doctrines or rituals and ceremonies. It is a complete code regulating the whole Muslim society, every department of life, collective[ly] and individually. (Eid message in September 1945)
    • He called upon the mammoth Lahore audience to build up "Pakistan as a bulwark of Islam", to "live up to your traditions and add to it another chapter of glory", adding, "If we take our inspiration and guidance from the Holy Quran, the final victory, I once again say, will be ours" (30 October 1947 in Lahore)
    • Remember we are building up a State which is going to play its full part in the destinies of the whole Islamic World. We, therefore, need a wider outlook an outlook which transcends the boundaries of provinces, limited nationalism, and racialism. We must develop a sense of patriotism which should galvanize and weld us all into one united and strong nation. That is the only way in which we can achieve our goal, the goal of our struggle, the goal for which millions of Mussalmans have lost their all and laid down their lives. (Speech, Islamia College, Peshawar, 12 April 1948)
    • The great ideals of human progress, of social justice, of equality and of fraternity…, constitute the basic causes of the birth of Pakistan and also…(provide) limitless possibilities of evolving and ideal social structure in our State. I reiterate most emphatically that Pakistan was made possible because of the danger of complete annihilation of human soul in a society based on caste. Now that the soul is free to exist and to aspire it must assert itself galvanizing not only the State but also the Nation. (Address, Public Meeting, Chittagong, 26 March 1948)
    • The establishment of Pakistan for which we have been striving is, by (the) grace of God, an established fact today, but the creation of a State of our own was the means to an end and not the end in itself. The idea was that we should have a State in which we could live and breathe as free men and which we could develop according to our own rights and culture and where principle of Islamic social justice could find freeplay. (Address to civil and Military Officers of Pakistan Government, Karachi, 11 October 1947)
    • If we want to make this great State of Pakistan happy and prosperous, we should concentrate on the well being of the people, and especially of the masses and the poor. Everyone of you, no matter what his colour, caste or creed, is first, second or last a citizen of this State with equal rights, privileges and obligations…. (Address, Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, 11 August 1947)
    • We must get Pakistan at any cost. For it we live and for it we will die. The Mussalmans have to struggle and struggle hard for their honourable existence….you must work and work hard. By doing so you will contribute substantially not only to the honour of ten crores of Muslims but to the crystallization of a free Muslim state of Pakistan where Muslims will be able to offer the ideology of Islamic rule. (Address, Public Meeting, Mardan, 24 November 1945)
    • In Pakistan lies our deliverance, defence and honour…In our solidarity, unity and discipline lie the strength, power and sanction behind us to carry on this fight successfully. No sacrifice should be considered too great. We shall never accept any future constitution on the basis of a united India. (Message on Pakistan Day, 23 March 1945)
    • Urdu (is) a language that has been nurtured by a hundred million Muslims of this subcontinent, a language understood throughout the length and breadth of Pakistan and above all, a language with more than any other provincial language, embodies the best in Islam culture and Muslim tradition….in nearest to the language used in order Islamic countries. (Address, Dacca University Convocation, 24 March 1948)
    • My….message to our brother Muslim States is one of friendship and goodwill. We are all passing through perilous time. The drama of power politics that is being staged in Palestine, Indonesia and Kashmir should serve as an eye opener to us. It is only by putting up a united front that we can make our voice felt in the counsels of the world. (Eid Message, 7 August 1948)
    • Muslim feelings have been stirred over the issue of Palestine. I know Muslims will not shirk from any sacrifice if required to help the Arabs who are engaged in the fight for their national freedom. You know the Arabs…who are fighting for the freedom of their country, have been described as gangsters, and subjected to all forms of repression…But no nation, no people who are worth living as a nation, can achieve anything great without making great sacrifices, such as the Arabs of Palestine are making. All our sympathies are with those valiant martyrs who are fighting the battle of freedom against usurpers. They are being subjected to monstrous injustices. (Address, All India Muslim League Session, Patna, 26 December 1938)
    • They will have their rights and privileges and no doubt, along with it goes the obligation of citizenship. Therefore, the minorities have their responsibilities also and they will play their part in the affairs of this State. As long as the minorities are loyal to the State and owe true allegiance…. They need have no apprehension of any kind. (Press Conference, New Delhi, 14 July 1947)
    • No man should lose his liberty or be deprived of this liberty, without a judicial trial in accordance with the accepted rules of evidence and procedure…the powers which are going to be assumed by the executive, which means substitution of executive for judicial, such powers are likely to be abused, and in the past we have instances where such powers have been abused…there is no precedent or parallel that I know of in any other civilized country where you have laws of this character enacted…it imperils the liberty of the subject and fundamental liberties of a citizen…. (Speech on Criminal Law Emergency Powers Bill, Imperial Legislative Council, 6 February 1919)
    • Those days have gone when the country was ruled by the bureaucracy. It is people’s Government, responsible to the people more or less on democratic lines and parliamentary practice….Make the people feel that you are their servants and friends, maintain the highest standard of honour, integrity, justice and fairplay. (Address to Gazetted Officers, Chittagong, 25 March 1948)
    • Minorities can rest assured that their rights will be protected. No civilized Government can be run successfully without giving minorities a complete sense of security and confidence. They must be made to feel that they have a hand in Government and to do this they must have adequate representation in it. Pakistan will give this. (Interview to APA representative, Bombay, 8 November 1945.)
    • Grave political issues cannot be settled by the cult of the knife, or by gangsterism. There are parties and parties, but the difference between them cannot be resolved by attacks on Party leaders. Nor can political views by altered by the threats of violence. (Eid message, October 1943)
    • It is in your hands to put the Government in power or remove the Government from power, but you must not do it by mob methods. You have the power; you must learn the art to use it; you must try and understand the machinery. Constitutionally, it is in your hands to upset one Government and put another Government in power if you are dissatisfied to such an extent. (Address, Public Meeting, Dacca, 21 March 1948)
    • Our foreign policy is one of friendliness and goodwill towards all the nations of the world. We do not cherish aggressive designs against any country or nation. We believe in the principle of honesty and fairplay in national and international dealings and are prepared to make our utmost contribution to the promotion of peace and prosperity among the nations of the world. Pakistan will never be found lacking in extending its material and moral support to the oppressed and suppressed peoples of the world and in upholding the principles of the United Nation’s Charter. (Broadcast to USA, February 1948.)
    • A citizen who does black - marketing commits, I think, a greater crime… These black – marketers are really knowing, intelligent and ordinarily responsible people, and when they indulge in black – marketing, I think they ought to be very severely punished, because they undermine the entire system of control and regulation of ….essential commodities, and cause….starvation and want and even death. (Address, Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, Karachi, 11 August 1947)
    • With the removal of foreign domination, the people are now the final arbiters of their destiny. They have perfect liberty to have by constitutional means any Government that they may choose. This cannot, however, mean that any group may now attempt by any unlawful methods to impose its will on the popularly elected Government of the day. The Government and its policy may be changed by the votes of the elected representatives…. (Broadcast, Radio Pakistan, Dacca, 28 March 1948.)
    • Corruption is a curse in India and amongst Muslims, especially the so-called educated and intelligentsia. Unfortunately, it is this class that it selfish and morally and intellectually corrupt. No doubt this disease is common, but amongst this particular class of Muslims it is rampant. (M.A. Jinnah to Ispahani, 6 May 1945)
    • Democracy is in the blood of Musalmans, who look upon complete equality of manhood [mankind]…[and] believe in fraternity, equality and liberty. (London, 14 December 1946)
    • Muslims in Pakistan want to be able to establish their own real democratic popular government. This government will have the sanction…of the people of Pakistan and will function with the will and sanction of the entire body of people in Pakistan, irrespective of caste or colour…. (Interview to the Daily Worker, London, 1944.)
    • I do hope that immediate steps will be taken by the Paramount Power to intervene and hold an inquiry into the recent occurrences in Kashmir wich have resulted in bloodshed and the ruthless measure of oppression and suppression that have been adopted by the Kashmir Government against the people and the press. From all accounts that I have received, there does not exist in Kashmir any freedom of thought or speech. (11 September 1945)
    • Nature’s inexorable law is ‘the survival of the fittest’ and we have to prove ourselves fit for our newly won freedom. You have fought many a battle on the far-flung battlefields of the globe to rid the world of the Fascist menace and make its safe for democracy. Now you have to stand guard over the development and maintenance of Islamic democracy, Islamic social justice and the equality of manhood in your own native soil. You will have to be alert, very alert, for the time for relaxation is not yet there. With faith, discipline and selfless devotion to duty, there is nothing worthwhile that you cannot achieve. (Address to the 5th Heavy Ack Ack and 6th Light Ack Ack Regiments, Malir, 21 February 1948)
    • You will no doubt agree with me that the first duty of a government is to maintain law and order, so that the life, property, and religious beliefs of its subjects are fully protected by the State.....…if we want to make this great State of Pakistan happy and prosperous we should wholly and solely concentrate on the well-being of the people, and especially of the masses and the poor. (Address, Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, Karachi, 11 August 1947)
    • The Government can only have for its aim one objective – how to serve the people, how to devise ways and means for their welfare, for their betterment. What other object can the Government have…..? (Address, Public Meeting, Dacca, 21 March 1948)
    • I naturally welcome your statement that you do not believe in provincialism. You must learn to distinguish between your love for your province and your love and duty to the State as a whole. Our duty to the State takes us a stage beyond provincialism. It demands a broader sense of vision, and (a) greater sense of patriotism. Our duty to the State often demands that we must be ready to submerge our individual or provincial interests into the common cause for common good. Our duty to the State comes first: our duty to our Province, to our district, to our town and to our village and ourselves comes next. (Speech, Islamia College, Peshawar, 12 April 1948)

    • When we first raised our demand for a sovereign and independent State of Pakistan there were not a few false prophets who tried to deflect us from our set purpose by saying that Pakistan was not economically feasible. They painted an extremely dark picture of the future of our State and its financial and economic soundness. The very first bedget presented by you must have caused a shock to those false prophets. It has already demonstrated the soundness of Pakistan’s finance and the determination of its Government to make them more and more sound and strong…..I have no doubt in my mind about the bright future that awaits Pakistan when its vast resources of men and material are fully mobilized. The road that we may have to travel may be somewhat uphill at present but with courage and determination we mean to achieve our objective which is to build up and construct a strong and prosperous Pakistan. (Speech on the occasion of the presentation of new Pakistani coins and currency notes by the Finance Minister, 1 April 1948.)
    • If we are to make any real, speedy and substantial progress, we must…bring our educational policy and programme on the lines suited to the genius of our people, consonant with our history and culture, and having regard to the modern conditions and vast development that have taken place all over the world….What we have to do is to mobilize our people and build up the character of our future generation……In short, we have to build up the character of our future generations which means highest sense of honour, integrity, selfless service to the nation, and sense of responsibility, and we have to see that they are fully qualified or equipped to play their part in the various branches of economic life in a manner which will do honour to Pakistan. (Message to All Pakistan Education Conference, Karachi, 27 November 1947.)
    • I have no doubt that with unity, faith and discipline we will not only remain the fifth largest State in the world but will compare with any nation of the world….You must make up your mind now. We must sink individualism and petty jealousies and make up our minds to serve the people with honesty and faithfulness. We are passing through a period of fear, danger and menace. We must have faith, unity and discipline. (Reply to North Western Railway Officers welcome address, Karachi, 28 December 1947)
    • Brotherhood, equality, and fraternity of man – these are all the basic points of our religion, culture and civilization and we fought for Pakistan because there was a danger of the denial of these human rights in this Subcontinent. (Address, Public Reception, Chittagong, 26 March 1948.)
    • I should like to give a warning to the landlords and capitalists who have flourished at our expense by a system which is so vicious, which is so wicked and which makes them so selfish that it is difficult to reason with them. The exploitation of the masses has gone into their blood. They have forgotten the lessons of Islam. (Address, All India Muslim League Session, Delhi, 24 April 1943)
    • I say, protect the innocent, protect those journalists who are doing their duty and who are serving both the public and the Government by criticizing the Government freely, independently, honestly which is an education for any Government. (Speech on the condition of the Press in India in the Imperial Legislative Council, 19 September 1918)
    • I want you to keep your heads up as citizens of a free and independent sovereign State. Praise your Government when it deserves. Citicize your Government fearlessly when it deserves, but do not go on all the time attacking, indulging in destructive criticism, taking delight in running down the Ministry or the officials. (Reply to welcome address, Edwardes College, Peshawar, 18 April 1948)
    • Representative governments and representative institutions are no doubt good and desirable, but when people want to reduce them merely to channels of personal aggrandizement, they not only lose their value but earn and bad name. We must subject our actions to perpetual security and test them with the touchstone, not of personal or sectional interest, but of the good of the State. (Address at Quetta Municipality, 15 June 1948.)
    • This is your Government. It is quite different from its predecessor. Therefore, appreciate when a good thing is done. Certainly criticize fearlessly, when a wrong thing is done. I welcome criticism, but it must be honest and constructive. (Address, Edwardes College, Peshawar, 18 April 1948)
    • Islam and its idealism have taught democracy. Islam has taught equality, justice and fairplay to everybody. What reason is their for anyone to fear democracy, equality, freedom on the highest standard of integrity and on the basis of fairplay and justice for everybody…..Let us make it (the future constitution of Pakistan), We shall make it and we shall show it to the world. (Address, Bar Association, Karachi, 25 January 1948)
    • The adoption of Western economic theory and practice will not help us in achieving our goal of creating a happy and contented people. We must work our destiny in our own way and present to the world an economic system based on the true Islamic concept of equality of manhood and social justice. (Speech at the Opening Ceremony of the State Bank of Pakistan, Karachi, 1 July 1948)
    • Remember that the scrupulous maintenance and enforcement of law and order are the prerequisites of all progress. The tenets of Islam enjoin on every Musalman to give protection to his neighbours and to the minorities regardless of caste and creed. (Speech at University Stadium, Lahore, 30 October 1947)
    • It is your sacred duty to look after the poor and help them. I would never have gone through the toil and suffering for the last ten years had I not felt our sacred duty towards them. We must secure for them better living conditions. It should not be our policy to make the rich richer, but that does not mean that we want to uproot things. We can quite consistently give all their due share. (27 Ramadhan, 1366)
    • Traders and merchants will always be welcome and they, in building up their own fortunes, will not forget their social responsibility for a fair and square deal to one and all, big and small. I would like Pakistan to become (a) synonym and hallmark for standar and quality in the market places of the world….May you, as true Pakistanis, help to reconstruct and build Pakistan to reach a mighty and glorious status amongst the comity of nations of the world…. (Address, Karachi Chamber of Commerce, 27 April 1948)
    • Work honestly and sincerely and be faithful and loyal to the Pakistan Government. I can assure you there is nothing greater in this world than your own conscience and, when you appear before God, you can say that you performed your duty with the highest sense of integrity, honesty and with loyalty and faithfulness. (Address to Civil Officers of Balochistan, Sibi, 14 February 1948)
    • Musalmans are a nation according to any definition of a nation, and they must have their homelands, their territory and their State. We wish to live in peace and harmony with our neighbours as a free and independent people. We wish our people to develop to the fullest our spiritual, cultural, economic social, and political life in a way that we think best, and in consonance with our own ideals and according to the genius of our people. (Presidential Address, 27th Session, All India Muslim League , Lahore, 22 – 24 March 1940)
    • We maintain and hold that Muslims and Hindus are two major nations by any definition or test of a nation. We are a nation of a hundred million people, and, what is more, we are a nation with our own distinctive culture and civilization, language and literature, art and architecture, names and nomenclature, sense of value and proportion, legal laws and moral codes, customs and calendar, history and traditions, aptitudes and ambitions – in short, we have our own distinctive outlook on life and of life. By all canons of international law we are a nation. (Jinnah’s reply (17 September 1944) to Gandhi’s contention (15 September 1944); “I find no parallel in history for a body of converts and their descendants claiming to be a nation apart from the parent stock.)
    • During may talks with one or two very high-ranking officers I discovered that they did not know the implications of the Oath taken by the troops of Pakistan. Of course, an oath is only a matter of form; what is more important is the true spirit and the heart. But it is an important form and I would like to take the opportunity of refreshing your memory by reading the prescribed oath to you: “I solemnly affirm, in the presence of Alimighty God, that I owe allegiance to the Constitution and the Dominion of Pakistan and that I will as in duty bound honestly and faithfully serve in the Dominion of Pakistan Forces and go within the terms of my enrolment wherever I may be ordered by air, land or sea and that I will observe and obey all commands of any officer set over me…. (Address, Staff College, Quetta, 14 June 1948.)
    • The great majority of us are Muslims. We follow the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)….But make no mistake Pakistan is not a theocracy or anything like it. Islam demands from us the tolerance of other creeds and we welcome in closest association with us all those who of whatever creed, are themselves willing and ready to play their part as true and loyal citizens of Pakistan. (Broadcast talk to the people of Australia,19 February 1948)
    • We have undoubtedly achieved Pakistan, and that too without bloody war and practically peacefully by moral and intellectual force and with the power of the pen, which is no less mighty than the sword and so our righteous cause has triumphed. Are we now going to besmear and tarnish this greatest achievement for which there is no parallel in the history of the world. Pakistan is now a fait accompli and it can never be undone, besides, it was the only just, honourable, and practical solution of the most complex constitutional problem of this great subcontinent. Let us now plan to build and reconstruct and regenerate our great nation….Now is the time, chance and opportunity for every Mussalman to make his or her fullest and best contribution and make the greatest sacrifice and work ceaselessly in the service of our nation and make Pakistan one of the greatest nations of the world. It is in your hands, we have undoubtedly talents, Pakistan is blessed with enormous resources and potentialities. Providence has endowed us with all the wealth of nature and now it lies with man to make the best of it. (31 August 1947)
    • I sincerely hope that they (relations between India and Pakistan) will be friendly and cordial. We have a great deal to do….and think that we can be of use to each other (and to) the world. (Press Conference, New Delhi, 14 July 1947)
    • First and the foremost, both Dominions must make all-out efforts to restore peace and maintain law and order in their respective States – that is fundamental. I have repeatedly said that; now that the division of India has been brought about by solemn agreement between the two Dominions, we should bury the past and resolve that, despite all that has happened, we shall remain friends. There are many things which we need from each other as neighbours and we can help each other in diverse ways, morally, materially and politically and thereby raise the prestige and status of both Dominions. But before we can make any progress, it is absolutely essential that peace must be restored and law and order maintained in both the Dominions. (Interview to Reuter’s correspondent, Karachi, 25 October 1947)
    • I have full faith in my people that they will rise to every occasion worthy of our past Islamic history, glory and traditions. (14 Aug 1948)

    Nations are born in the hearts of poets!!!

    The poetry of Allama Iqbal was a breath of fresh air throughout Pakistan Movement... ...This is the historical and extremely memorable pic o...